Immigration and Migration
To understand the causes of immigration it is easy to look at life in nature. Migration does not only mean human movement alone, but is the movement by many living creatures from one place to other for survival. Animals, birds and life under water also migrate to overcome unfavourable natural and seasonal conditions. Seasonal migration in most cases are reversed, but long term loss of habitat or prolonged unfavourable conditions at their place of origin results in permanent migration.
What is Immigration OR Human Migration
Immigration is the movement (migration) of people from their native land to a foreign land permanently or temporarily. In countries that receive migrating people they are known as immigrants and in the country they leave they are known as emigrant population. Migration was a fact since primitive era and through ancient civilizations, which continues in new forms even now. The present day immigration are of two types: legitimate migration and illegal migration. Where nation states permit immigration on certain conditions or on fulfilling certain qualifying conditions – both educationally and socially – are legal immigration; and people immigrate to foreign countries by trespassing through land or sea border or by obtaining a visa on various pretexts are illegal immigrants. Many countries worldwide face the problem of illegal immigrants.
Know How To Migrate To These Countries
|Immigrating to USA|
|Immigrating to Australia|
|Immigrating to UK|
|Immigrating to Ireland|
|Immigrating to New Zealand|
|Immigrating to Canada|
Why Do People Migrate?
People migrate to a new destination for various motives, like lack of employment opportunities at home or better employment opportunities in their destination country, better wages, better living conditions at the place of immigration, ethnic and political conflicts back home, … etc. to list a few among many.
Primary motive for immigration is employment economic migration. Different wage rates at home country and another country makes people migrate. Especially when countries with better natural resources and capability to convert natural resources in to wealth require more manpower, and in turn attracts people from countries with scarce resources and opportunities, to migrate.
Refugees are a class of immigrants in many parts of the world. When people are forced to leave the place in which they were living for generations they take refuge in other countries. Conditions like ethnic or political crises, war, clashes between various social and racial groups, denial of access to country’s economic resources, etc. force people to migrate to a foreign land.
World History of Migration
Historically, world over herding tribes were habitual migrants who move from place to place. Aryans are believed to be a major human race who have moved from Central Asia to South Asia eastwards and through Caucasus westwards in search of pastures for themselves and their cattle. There is description in history as well as Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Egyptian holy scriptures about Jews migrating to other parts of the world due to political reasons. Following renaissance during 17th & 18th centuries Europeans migrated world over, and many settled in Americas, Asia and Africa. Between 6th and 11th centuries the Romani tribes (also known as Gypsies), an ethnic group left the Indian subcontinent and migrated to Arabia and then later settled in Europe, Turkey and Northern Africa. Most of their descendants are still homeless people because they are thought as ‘culturally different’ people and a ‘cultural antisense’ by others in those places. In twentieth century alone there were many migrations world over, including people from central and west Asia migrating to western world, people of both sides migrating mutually following India-Pakistan partition, and many others.
Immigrations Post World War II
After World War II ended in 1945 Europe was in total chaos. Germany was crushed and the destiny of Western Europe was controlled by United States and that of Eastern Europe was controlled by Soviet Union. Millions of Europeans, especially from most war affected countries migrated to Australia, Canada and rest of new world that needed good quality manpower to work in various development projects.
During 1950’s the Colombo Plan was introduced, the developed Commonwealth countries allowed people from less developed commonwealth countries to come and settle, mainly in an effort to get rid of the negative image of being seen as white favouring policies. Many immigrated in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Britain, United States and Japan. Countries in the South Asia including India benefited from the policy.
In 1950s and 60s large number of southern Americans started migrating to northern American states, a phenomenon that was so tremendous to be called as ‘the Great Migration’, and the people so migrated were called ‘Southern Diaspora’.
Following Nazi persecution in Germany and its concentration camps, the plight of Jews invited international attention. Countries in the Allied forces were ready to receive Jews in the condition that they will work for the country for certain period. Several thousands migrated to United States, UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.
The above description of the history of migration has only aimed to give a nutshell idea about the past story of migrations.