Industrial Relations

Industrial relations is used to denote the collective relationships between management and the workers. Traditionally, the term industrial relations is used to cover such aspects of industrial life as trade unionism, collective bargaining, workers participation in management, discipline and grievance handling, industrial disputes and interpretation of labor laws and rules and code of conduct.

industrialrelations-1In the words of Lester, “Industrial relations involve attempts at arriving at solutions between the conflicting objectives and values; between the profit motive and social gain; between discipline and freedom, between authority and industrial democracy; between bargaining and co-operation; and between conflicting interests of the individual, the group and the community.

Salaries in India are much more attractive in indian subcontinent. As India is having flourishing economy, the job opportunities are emerging and there is huge scope of expansion. The salary pattern of India is also growing. Even, the seventh pay commission is also spreading the way to coming soon. The Salaries of private sector is also in the upswing mode with the increase of 11% annually. Although, Inflation is one of the major factor which nullify the increase in the salary. But still, the inflation is lower than the increase in the salary. So, this can be seen as increase in the salary.

The National Commission on Labor (NCL) also emphasize on the same concept. According to NCL, industrial relations affect not merely the interests of the two participants- labor and management, but also the economic and social goals to which the State addresses itself. To regulate these relations in socially desirable channels is a function, which the State is in the best position to perform In fact, industrial relation encompasses all such factors that influence behaviour of people at work. A few such important factors are below:

In fact, industrial relation encompasses all such factors that influence behaviour of people at work. A few such important factors are below:


It aims to study the role of workers unions and employers€™ federations officials, shop stewards, industrial relations officers/ manager, mediator/conciliators / arbitrator, judges of labor court, tribunal etc.


It includes government, employers, trade unions, union federations or associations, government bodies, labor courts, tribunals and other organizations which have direct or indirect impact on the industrial relations systems.


Methods focus on collective bargaining, workers participation in the industrial relations schemes, discipline procedure, grievance redressal machinery, dispute settlements machinery working of closed shops, union reorganization, organizations of protests through methods like revisions of existing rules, regulations, policies, procedures, hearing of labor courts, tribunals etc.


It includes matter pertaining to employment conditions like pay, hours of works, leave with wages, health, and safety disciplinary actions, lay-off, dismissals retirements etc., laws relating to such activities, regulations governing labor welfare, social security, industrial relations, issues concerning with workers participation in management, collective bargaining, etc.

Factories Act(1948), Mines Act(1952) & Dock Workers Act(1986)

There are three major legislations relating to occupational health and safety in India. They are related to the health and safety of persons employed in factories, mines and ports. The Factories Act, 1948 • It provides the following provisions for maintaining health, security and safety of employees: For Health For Safety For Welfare Mines Act, … [Read more...]

Labor Market Related Terms

Labor Market A labor market is defined as a pool of all potential workers who compete for jobs. It also includes the employers who compete for workers. Labor markets are based on the supply and demand of labor in a country or a specific location that are able and willing to work. Labor ForceLabor force includes all persons classified either as employed or unemployed during … [Read more...]

Occupational Health & Safety Management System


The Bureau of Indian Standards has formulated a standard for Occupational health and safety management systems. This standard is known as IS 18001:2000 Occupational Health and Safety Management System. Any OHS management system adopted by an organization should incorporate all the requirements specified in this standard. Organizations willing to adopt OH&S Management … [Read more...]

Issues in Employee Health & Safety

Organizations frame many approaches to ensure health and safety of their employees. But not all of the approaches focus on contribution of both work design and employee behavior to safety. An organizational approach to safety is effective only when both the work design and employee behavior work in coordination towards it. Many organizational and individual issues emerge in … [Read more...]



Table Showing Growth Of Trade Unions and Membership is following below Growth of trade unions and membership … [Read more...]

Analysis Of Strikes and Lockouts


In 1990, 1,825 strikes and lockouts were recorded. As a result, 24.1 million workdays were lost, from which 10.6 million were lost to strikes and 13.5 million to lockouts. More than 1.3 million workers were involved in these labor disputes. The number and seriousness of strikes and lockouts have varied from year to year. As can be seen from the below chart, there has been a … [Read more...]

Employee Discipline


The maintenance of harmonious industrial relations within an industry depends on the extent of promotion and maintenance of discipline in the organizations. No organizations can grow and prosper without effective disciplinary system. Discipline on account of employees means complying with the predefined rules and regulations of the organization. It is a form of training that … [Read more...]

Glossary Of Industrial Relations

For better understanding of industrial relations, various terms need to be defined here: Industry Industrial Disputes Act 1947 defines an industry as any systematic activity carried on by co-operation between an employer and his workmen for the production, supply or distribution of goods or services with a view to satisfy human wants or wishes whether or not any … [Read more...]

Employment In India


The organized sector in India consists of 293.77 thousand industrial establishments. Out of these, 172.34 thousand are public sector enterprises while 121.43 thousand are in private sector. Since 2004, an increase of 1.4% has been recorded in the number of establishments in the organized sector. As on the 31st March, 2005 the total employment in the organized sector was … [Read more...]

Analysis Of Industrial Disputes


The number of industrial disputes in country has shown slow but steady fall over the past ten years. In 1998, the total number of disputes was 1097 which fell by more than half to 440 in 2006.It is being estimated that this trend will continue in 2007 as well. To support this, only 45 cases of disputes have been recorded during the first four months of 2007. This significant … [Read more...]