Collective Bargaining is the “negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employees” Collective bargaining is process of joint decision making and basically represents a democratic way of life in industry. It is the process of negotiation between firm’s and workers’ representatives for the purpose of establishing mutually agreeable conditions of employment. It is a technique adopted by two parties to reach an understanding acceptable to both through the process of discussion and negotiation.

ILO has defined collective bargaining as, negotiation about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer and a group of employees or one or more employee, organization with a view to reaching an agreement wherein the terms serve as a code of defining the rights and obligations of each party in their employment/industrial relations with one another.

Collective Bargaining Discourse
Importance of Collective Bargaining
Process of Collective Bargaining
Levels of Collective Bargaining
Characteristics of Collective Bargaining
Types of Collective Bargaining

Collective bargaining involves discussions and negotiations between two groups as to the terms and conditions of employment. It is called ‘collective’ because both the employer and the employee act as a group rather than as individuals. It is known as ‘bargaining’ because the method of reaching an agreement involves proposals and counter proposals, offers and counter offers and other negotiations.

Thus collective bargaining:

    • is a collective process in which representatives of both the management and employees participate.
    • is a continuous process which aims at establishing stable relationships between the parties involved.
  • not only involves the bargaining agreement, but also involves the implementation of such an agreement.
  • attempts in achieving discipline in the industry
  • is a flexible approach, as the parties involved have to adopt a flexible attitude towards negotiations.