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Industrial Relations

“Industrial relationship is about the relationship between an employee and management. This page carries information about Industrial relations and its concept through definition and description of industrial relation.”

Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modern industrial society. Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labors and harmonious relationships. Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees (labor) and employers (management).

Definition of Industrial Relations

Industrial relation is defined as relation of Individual or group of employee and employer for engaging themselves in a way to maximize the productive activities.

In the words of Lester, “Industrial relations involve attempts at arriving at solutions between the conflicting objectives and values; between the profit motive and social gain; between discipline and freedom, between authority and industrial democracy; between bargaining and co-operation; and between conflicting interests of the individual, the group and the community.

Industrial Relations – Related Topics
Industrial Relations Terminology Approaches to Discipline
Importance of Industrial Relations Positive Discipline Approach
Objectives of Industrial Relation Progressive Discipline Approach
Industrial Relations Systems Marxist Perspective Industrial Relations
Dunlop’s Model of Industrial Relation Unitary Perspective
Measures to Improve Industrial Relations Pluralistic Perspective of Industrial Relations
Industrial Relations Policy Code of Discipline
Industrial Discipline Effective Discipline
Related Topics: Trade Unions in South Africa – Roles and Responsibilities

Concept of Industrial Relations

The term ‘Industrial Relations’ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’. “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”. By “relations” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen.” The term industrial relations explains the relationship between employees and management which stems directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship.

Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. Industrial relations are basically the interactions between employers, employees and the government, and the institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated.

The term industrial relations has a broad as well as narrow outlook. Originally, industrial relations was broadly defined to include the relationships and interactions between employers and employees. From this perspective, industrial relations covers all aspects of the employment relationship, including human resource management, employee relations, and union-management (or labor) relations. Now its meaning has become more specific and restricted. Accordingly, industrial relations pertains to the study and practice of collective bargaining, trade unionism, and labor-management relations, while human resource management is a separate, largely distinct field that deals with nonunion employment relationships and the personnel practices and policies of employers.

The relationships which arise at and out of the workplace generally include the relationships between individual workers, the relationships between workers and their employer and the relationships between employees. The relationships employers and workers have with the organizations are formed to promote their respective interests, and the relations between those organizations, at all levels. Industrial relations also includes the processes through which these relationships are expressed (such as, collective bargaining, workers’ participation in decision-making, and grievance and dispute settlement), and the management of conflict between employers, workers and trade unions, when it arises.

Topics on Trade Union Collective Bargaining and Industrial Disputes
Trade Unions Collective Bargaining
Objectives of Trade Unions Functions of Industrial Relations
Reason for Joining Trade Unions Causes of Industrial Disputes
Trade Unionism
Importance of Trade Unions Strikes
Facts and Figures of Trade Unions Analysis of Strikes
Code of Ethics Lockouts
Causes of Industrial Disputes
Labour Market Prohibition of Strikes and Lockouts
Importance of Collective Bargaining Grievances
Collective Bargaining Process Grievance Procedure
Levels of Collective Bargaining Women Employment and Welfare
Characteristics of Collective Bargaining Employment in India
Forms of Collective Bargaining Organized and Unorganized Labour
Employee Welfare Labour Welfare Fund
Employee Welfare Schemes Employee Health
Factories Act and Labour Welfare Issues of Employee Health

Need for Industrial Relation

Need of Industrial Relation has arisen to defend the interest of workers for adjusting the reasonable salary or wages. It also helps the workers to seek perfect working condition for producing maximum output. Workers/employees are concerned with social security measures through this. Industrial Relations is also needed for achieving the democracy by allowing worker to take part in management, which helps to protect human rights of individual.Salaries in India are much more attractive in Indian subcontinent. As India is having flourishing economy, the job opportunities are emerging and there is huge scope of expansion. The salary pattern of India is also growing. Even, the seventh pay commission is also spreading the way to coming soon. The Salaries of private sector is also in the upswing mode with the increase of 11% annually. Although, Inflation is one of the major factor which nullify the increase in the salary. But still, the inflation is lower than the increase in the salary. So, this can be seen as increase in the salary.

The National Commission on Labor (NCL) also emphasize on the same concept. According to NCL, industrial relations affect not merely the interests of the two participants- labor and management, but also the economic and social goals to which the State addresses itself. To regulate these relations in socially desirable channels is a function, which the State is in the best position to perform In fact, industrial relation encompasses all such factors that influence behaviour of people at work. A few such important factors are below:

In fact, industrial relation encompasses all such factors that influence behaviour of people at work. A few such important factors are below:


It aims to study the role of workers unions and employers€™ federations officials, shop stewards, industrial relations officers/ manager, mediator/conciliators / arbitrator, judges of labor court, tribunal etc.


It includes government, employers, trade unions, union federations or associations, government bodies, labor courts, tribunals and other organizations which have direct or indirect impact on the industrial relations systems.


Methods focus on collective bargaining, workers participation in the industrial relations schemes, discipline procedure, grievance redressal machinery, dispute settlements machinery working of closed shops, union reorganization, organizations of protests through methods like revisions of existing rules, regulations, policies, procedures, hearing of labor courts, tribunals etc.


It includes matter pertaining to employment conditions like pay, hours of works, leave with wages, health, and safety disciplinary actions, lay-off, dismissals retirements etc., laws relating to such activities, regulations governing labor welfare, social security, industrial relations, issues concerning with workers participation in management, collective bargaining, etc.

7 thoughts on “Industrial Relations”

  1. what are the things an employer should out in place to ensure employee saftey?
    what are the rights of an employee to be protected?

  2. There is a room for sociak dialogue in any industrial duspute. The industrial actors i e the employer, employee and state can not be isolated in workplace issues there must be interaction to absorb cohension and.coersion

  3. Hello sir m ashok kumar . I need a job which is based on my qualification (iti electrician).sir i want job in bhilai durg or raipur.plsss sir help me . My mobile no is 8827539775.

  4. Dear sir
    I’m completed in diploma mechanical
    engineering with first class and I also completed in ITI fitter still I’m searching for jobs in abroad can you help

    1. If the disputes is arising the employees should approach the trade unions because any grievances or disputes is solved by them only or by management

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